Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Significant Accounting Policies
2. Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial information of the Company has been prepared in accordance with Article 10 of the Securities and Exchange Commission’s, or SEC, Regulation S-X. Accordingly, as permitted by Article 10 of the SEC’s Regulation S-X, it does not include all of the information required by generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S., or U.S. GAAP, for complete financial statements. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022 was derived from the audited financial statements at that date and does not include all the disclosures required by U.S. GAAP, as permitted by Article 10 of the SEC’s Regulation S-X. The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of September 30, 2023 and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 include Herbalife Ltd. and all of its direct and indirect subsidiaries. In the opinion of management, the accompanying financial information contains all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present fairly the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of September 30, 2023 and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, or the 2022 10-K. Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023.
Recently Adopted Pronouncements
In March 2022, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2022-01, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Fair Value Hedging — Portfolio Layer Method. This ASU improves hedge accounting to better portray the economic results of an entity’s risk management activities in its financial statements. It expands the current last-of-layer method that permits only one hedged layer to allow multiple hedged layers of a single closed portfolio, and to reflect that expansion, the last-of-layer method is renamed the portfolio layer method. The amendments in this update are effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this guidance during the first quarter of 2023 did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In September 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-04, Liabilities - Supplier Finance Programs (Subtopic 405-50): Disclosure of Supplier Finance Program Obligations. This ASU requires entities that use supplier finance programs in connection with the purchase of goods and services to disclose key terms of the programs and a rollforward of the related obligations. The new standard does not affect the recognition, measurement or financial statement presentation of supplier finance program obligations. The amendments in this update are effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, except for the amendment on rollforward information, which is effective for periods beginning after December 15, 2023. The adoption of this guidance during the first quarter of 2023 did not have a material impact on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.
In July 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-03, Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205), Income Statement- Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Equity (Topic 505), and Compensation- Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 120, SEC Staff Announcement at the March 24, 2022 EITF Meeting, and Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 6.B, Accounting Series Release 280 − General Revision of Regulation S-X: Income or Loss Applicable to Common Stock, which among various updates, includes (1) clarification on comprehensive income presentation for registrants having more than one class of common stock and (2) more specifically, clarifies language on considering the impact of material non-public information over share-based payment transactions, such as spring-loaded grants, when a) estimating the expected volatility for valuation purposes and b) calculating the fair value of the share based payment transactions to take into account a minimum amount of factors, including the current price of underlying shares. In addition, this ASU, also describes disclosure requirements for share-based payment transactions relating to these types of spring-loaded grant arrangements. This ASU does not provide any new guidance so there is no transition or effective date associated with this ASU which did not have a material impact on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-01, Leases (Topic 842) - Common Control Arrangements. This ASU addresses issues related to accounting for leases under common control arrangements. The standard will include an amendment to Topic 842 for all entities with leasehold improvements in common control arrangements to amortize leasehold improvements that it owns over the improvements’ useful life to the common control group if certain criteria are met. The amendments in this update are effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2023, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In August 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-05, Business Combinations – Joint Venture Formations (Subtopic 805-60): Recognition and Initial Measurement. This ASU addresses the accounting for contributions made to a joint venture, upon formation, in a joint venture’s separate financial statements. The objectives of the amendments are to (1) provide decision-useful information to investors and other allocators of capital in a joint venture’s financial statements and (2) reduce diversity in practice. The standard will require that a joint venture apply a new basis of accounting upon formation. By applying a new basis of accounting, a joint venture, upon formation, will recognize and initially measure its assets and liabilities at fair value (with exceptions to fair value measurement that are consistent with the business combinations guidance). In addition, the update on the standard requires certain disclosures enabling financial statement users to understand the nature and financial effect of the joint venture formation in the period in which the formation date occurs. The amendments in this update do not amend the definition of a joint venture (or a corporate joint venture), the accounting by an equity method investor for its investment in a joint venture, or the accounting by a joint venture for contributions received after its formation. The amendments in this update are effective prospectively for all joint venture formations with a formation date on or after January 1, 2025, with early adoption permitted in any interim or annual period in which financial statements have not yet been issued (or made available for issuance), either prospectively or retrospectively. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
In October 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-06, Disclosure Improvements: Codification Amendments in Response to the SEC’s Disclosure Update and Simplification Initiative, which amends the disclosure or presentation requirements of a variety of topics in the accounting standards codification in order to conform with certain SEC amendments in Release No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification. The effective date for each amendment will be the date on which the SEC removes that related disclosure from its rules. However, if by June 30, 2027, the SEC has not removed the related disclosure from its regulations, the amendments will be removed from the Codification and not become effective. The Company is evaluating the potential impact of this guidance on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
The Company’s net sales consist of product sales. In general, the Company’s performance obligation is to transfer its products to its Members. The Company generally recognizes revenue when product is delivered to its Members. For the majority of China independent service providers and for third-party importers utilized in certain other countries where sales historically have not been material, the Company recognizes revenue based on the Company’s estimate of when the service provider or third-party importer sells the products because the Company is deemed to be the principal party of these product sales due to the additional selling and operating requirements relating to pricing of products, conducting business with physical locations, and other selling and marketing activities required of the service providers and third-party importers. The Company recognizes revenue for certain China independent service providers upon delivery as such Members have pricing discretion and increased fulfillment responsibilities and accordingly were determined to be the Company’s customers for accounting purposes.
The Company’s Members, excluding its China independent service providers, may receive distributor allowances, which are comprised of discounts, rebates, and wholesale commission payments from the Company. Distributor allowances resulting from the Company’s sales of its products to its Members are recorded against net sales because the distributor allowances represent discounts from the suggested retail price.
The Company compensates its sales leader Members with royalty overrides for services rendered relating to the development, retention, and management of their sales organizations. Royalty overrides are payable based on achieved sales volume. Royalty overrides are classified as an operating expense reflecting the services provided to the Company. The Company compensates its China independent service providers and third-party importers utilized in certain other countries for providing marketing, selling, and customer support services. For China and third-party importer sales transactions, as the Company is the principal party for the majority of these product sales as described above, the majority of service fees payable to China independent service providers and the compensation received by third-party importers for the services they provide, which represents the discount provided to them, are recorded in selling, general, and administrative expenses within the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of income. In addition, for those certain China independent service providers who are deemed to be the Company’s customers for accounting purposes as described above, a portion of the service fees payable to these Members will be classified as a reduction of net sales as opposed to the entire service fee being recognized within selling, general, and administrative expenses.
The Company recognizes revenue when it delivers products to its United States Members; distributor allowances, inclusive of discounts and wholesale commissions, are recorded as a reduction to net sales; and royalty overrides are classified as an operating expense.
Shipping and handling services relating to product sales are recognized as fulfillment activities on the Company’s performance obligation to transfer products and are therefore recorded within net sales as part of product sales and are not considered as separate revenues. Shipping and handling costs paid by the Company are included in cost of sales.
The Company presents sales taxes collected from customers on a net basis.
The Company generally receives the net sales price in cash or through credit card payments at the point of sale. Accounts receivable consist principally of credit card receivables arising from the sale of products to the Company’s Members, and its collection risk is reduced due to geographic dispersion. Credit card receivables were $56.4 million and $52.4 million as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. Substantially all credit card receivables were current as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022. The Company recorded bad-debt expense related to allowances for the Company’s receivables of approximately $0.1 million during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts was $1.8 million and $2.1 million, respectively. As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the majority of the Company’s total outstanding accounts receivable were current.
The Company records advance sales deposits when payment is received but revenue has not yet been recognized. In the majority of the Company’s markets, advance sales deposits are generally recorded to income when the product is delivered to its Members. Additionally, advance sales deposits also include deferred revenues due to the timing of revenue recognition for products sold through China independent service providers. The estimated deferral period for advance sales deposits is generally within one week. During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company recognized substantially all of the revenues that were included within advance sales deposits as of December 31, 2022 and any remaining such balance was not material as of September 30, 2023. Advance sales deposits are included in other current liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. See Note 14, Detail of Certain Balance Sheet Accounts, for further information.
In general, if a Member returns product to the Company on a timely basis, they may obtain replacement product from the Company for such returned products. In addition, in general the Company maintains a buyback program pursuant to which it will repurchase products sold to a Member who has decided to leave the business. Allowances for product returns, primarily in connection with the Company’s buyback program, are provided at the time the sale is recorded. This accrual is based upon historical return rates for each country and the relevant return pattern, which reflects anticipated returns to be received over a period of up to 12 months following the original sale. Allowances for product returns were $1.8 million and $2.1 million as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
The Company’s products are grouped in five product categories: weight management; targeted nutrition; energy, sports, and fitness; outer nutrition; and literature and promotional items. However, the effect of economic factors on the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue recognition and cash flows are similar among all five product categories. The Company defines its operating segments through five geographic regions. The effect of economic factors on the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue recognition and cash flows are similar among the geographic regions within the Company’s Primary Reporting Segment. See Note 6, Segment Information, for further information on the Company’s reportable segments and the Company’s presentation of disaggregated revenue by reportable segment.
Distributor Compensation – U.S.
In the U.S., distributor compensation, including Royalty overrides, is capped if the Company does not meet an annual requirement as described in the consent order discussed in more detail in Note 5, Contingencies. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates if this requirement will be achieved by year end to determine if a cap on distributor compensation will be required, and then determines the appropriate amount of distributor compensation expense, which may vary in each reporting period. As of September 30, 2023, the Company believes that the cap to distributor compensation will not be applicable for the current year.
Other Operating Income
To encourage local investment and operations, governments in various China provinces conduct grant programs. The Company applied for and received several such grants in China. Government grants are recorded into income when a legal right to the grant exists, there is a reasonable assurance that the grant proceeds will be received, and the substantive conditions under which the grants were provided have been met. Generally, these substantive conditions are the Company maintaining operations and paying certain taxes in the relevant province and obtaining government approval by completing an annual application process. The Company believes the continuing obligation with respect to the funds is a general requirement that they are used only for its business in China. The Company did not recognize any government grant income related to its regional headquarters and distribution centers within China during the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. The Company recognized government grant income related to its regional headquarters and distribution centers within China of approximately $10.1 million and $14.9 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, in other operating income within its condensed consolidated statements of income. The Company intends to continue applying for government grants in China when programs are available; however, there is no assurance that the Company will receive grants in future periods.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same such amounts shown in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of cash flows:
The majority of the Company’s consolidated restricted cash held by certain of its foreign entities consists of cash deposits that are required due to the business operating requirements in those jurisdictions. In addition, as of September 30, 2023, the Company's consolidated restricted cash also includes $12.5 million in deposits into an escrow account in the U.S. for the class action lawsuit, titled Rodgers, et al. v Herbalife Ltd., et al. See Note 5, Contingencies, for further information.
Use of Estimates
The Company continues to operate in an uncertain macroeconomic and geopolitical environment caused by high inflation, foreign exchange rate fluctuations, the war in Ukraine, lingering COVID-19 pandemic impacts and other factors. The Company is closely monitoring the evolving macroeconomic and geopolitical conditions to assess potential impacts on its business. Due to the significant uncertainty created by these circumstances, actual results could differ from Management's estimates and judgments. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis using historical experience and other factors, including the current macroeconomic environment, which estimates and assumptions the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Changes in estimates resulting from continuing changes in the macroeconomic environment will be reflected in the financial statements in future periods.