Basis of Presentation
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2014
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Basis of Presentation
2. Basis of Presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements refer to Herbalife and its subsidiaries.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In April 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, No. 2014-08, Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205) and Property, Plant, and Equipment (Topic 360): Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity. This ASU changes the threshold for a disposal to qualify as a discontinued operation. To be considered a discontinued operation a disposal now must represent a strategic shift that has or will have a major effect on an entity’s operations and financial results. This ASU also requires new disclosures for individually material disposal transactions that do not meet the definition of a discontinued operation. This update will be applied prospectively and is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2014. Early adoption is permitted provided the disposal was not previously disclosed. The adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The new revenue recognition standard provides a five-step analysis of transactions to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and shall be applied either retrospectively to each period presented or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company is evaluating the potential impact of this adoption on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-12, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Accounting for Share-Based Payments When the Terms of an Award Provide That a Performance Target Could Be Achieved after the Requisite Service Period (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force). This ASU clarifies that a performance target that affects vesting and that could be achieved after the requisite service period be treated as a performance condition. A reporting entity should apply existing guidance in Topic 718 as it relates to awards with performance conditions that affect vesting to account for such awards. As such, the performance target should not be reflected in estimating the grant-date fair value of the award. Compensation cost should be recognized in the period in which it becomes probable that the performance target will be achieved and should represent the compensation cost attributable to the period(s) for which the requisite service has already been rendered. This ASU is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted. This ASU may be applied either (a) prospectively to all awards granted or modified after the effective date or (b) retrospectively to all awards with performance targets that are outstanding as of the beginning of the earliest annual period presented in the financial statements and to all new or modified awards thereafter. The adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements — Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40). The purpose of this ASU is to incorporate into U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP, management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or within one year after the date that the financial statements are available to be issued when applicable), and to provide related footnote disclosures. This update is effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. Early application is permitted. The adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-01, Income Statement—Extraordinary and Unusual Items (Subtopic 225-20): Simplifying Income Statement Presentation by Eliminating the Concept of Extraordinary Items. This ASU is part of the FASB’s initiative to reduce complexity in accounting standards. This ASU eliminates from U.S. GAAP the concept of extraordinary items, which were previously required to be segregated from the results of ordinary operations and shown separately in the income statement, net of tax, after income from continuing operations. Entities were also required to disclose applicable income taxes for the extraordinary item and either present or disclose earnings-per-share data applicable to the extraordinary item. Items which are considered both unusual and infrequent will now be presented separately within income from continuing operations in the income statement or disclosed in notes to the financial statements. This update is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Companies may apply the ASU prospectively, or may also apply the amendments retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements. Early adoption is permitted provided that the guidance is applied from the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Certain reclassifications were made to the prior period statement of cash flows, within cash flows from operating activities, to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications did not impact the prior period total net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, investing activities and financing activities, nor did it impact the Company’s accompanying consolidated balance sheets and related consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income.
Significant Accounting Policies
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Herbalife Ltd. and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany transactions and accounts have been eliminated.
Foreign Currency Translation and Transactions
In the majority of the countries that the Company operates, the functional currency is the local currency. The Company’s foreign subsidiaries’ asset and liability accounts are translated for consolidated financial reporting purposes into U.S. dollar amounts at year-end exchange rates. Revenue and expense accounts are translated at the average rates during the year. Foreign exchange translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive loss on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses, which include the cost of foreign currency derivative contracts and the related settlement gains and losses but excluding certain foreign currency derivatives designated as cash flow hedges as discussed in Note 11, Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income. The Company recorded net foreign currency transaction losses of $219.0 million, $37.9 million, and $16.7 million, for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively, which includes the foreign exchange impact relating to the Company’s Venezuelan subsidiary, Herbalife Venezuela. Herbalife Venezuela’s foreign currency financial statement impact is discussed further below within this Note.
Forward Exchange Contracts and Interest Rate Swaps
The Company enters into foreign currency derivatives, primarily comprised of foreign currency forward contracts, in managing its foreign exchange risk on sales to Members, inventory purchases denominated in foreign currencies, and intercompany transactions and bank loans. The Company also previously entered into interest rate swaps in managing its interest rate risk on its variable rate credit facility. The Company does not use the contracts for trading purposes.
In accordance with FASB Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, or ASC 815, the Company designates certain of its derivative instruments as cash flow hedges and formally documents its hedge relationships, including identification of the hedging instruments and the hedged items, as well as its risk management objectives and strategies for undertaking the hedge transaction, at the time the derivative contract is executed. The Company assesses the effectiveness of the hedge both at inception and on an ongoing basis and determines whether the hedge is highly or perfectly effective in offsetting changes in cash flows of the hedged item. The Company records the effective portion of changes in the estimated fair value in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and subsequently reclassifies the related amount of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to earnings when the hedged item and underlying transaction impacts earnings. If it is determined that a derivative has ceased to be a highly effective hedge, the Company will discontinue hedge accounting for such transaction. For derivatives that are not designated as hedges, all changes in estimated fair value are recognized in the consolidated statements of income.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are comprised primarily of foreign and domestic bank accounts, and money market funds. These cash and cash equivalents are valued based on level 1 inputs which consist of quoted prices in active markets. To reduce its credit risk, the Company monitors the credit standing of the financial institutions that hold the Company’s cash and cash equivalents.
The Company has a cash pooling arrangement with a financial institution for cash management purposes. This cash pooling arrangement allows certain of the Company’s participating subsidiaries to withdraw cash from this financial institution based upon the Company’s aggregate cash deposits held by subsidiaries who participate in the cash pooling arrangement. To the extent any participating location on an individual basis is in an overdraft position, these overdrafts will be recorded as liabilities and reflected as financing activities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and consolidated statement of cash flows, respectively. As of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, the Company did not owe any amounts to this financial institution.
As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company’s subsidiary in Venezuela, Herbalife Venezuela, had $36.4 million and $215.9 million, respectively, in Bolivar denominated cash and cash equivalents. Please see Remeasurement of Herbalife Venezuela’s Monetary Assets and Liabilities below for a further description of Herbalife Venezuela’s cash and cash equivalents balances.
Accounts receivable consist principally of receivables from credit card companies, arising from the sale of products to the Company’s Members, and receivables from importers, who are utilized in a limited number of countries to sell products to Members. The Company believes the concentration of its collection risk related to its credit card receivables is diminished due to the geographic dispersion of its receivables. The receivables from credit card companies were $57.6 million and $72.8 million as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Substantially all of the receivables from credit card companies were current as of December 31, 2014 and 2013. Although receivables from importers can be significant, the Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its importers and maintains an allowance for potential credit losses. The Company considers customer credit-worthiness, past and current transaction history with the customer, contractual terms, current economic industry trends, and changes in customer payment terms when determining whether collectability is reasonably assured and whether to record allowances for its receivables. If the financial condition of the Company’s customers deteriorates and adversely affects their ability to make payments, additional allowances will be recorded. The Company believes that it provides adequate allowances for receivables from its Members and importers which are not material to its consolidated financial statements. During the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, the Company recorded $2.2 million, $2.1 million, and $2.9 million, respectively, in bad-debt expense related to allowances for the Company’s receivables. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts was $1.9 million and $2.2 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the majority of the Company’s total outstanding accounts receivable were current.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company applies the provisions of FASB authoritative guidance as it applies to its financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. The FASB authoritative guidance clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used to measure fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.
The Company has estimated the fair value of its financial instruments using the following methods and assumptions:
Inventories are stated at lower of cost (primarily on the first-in, first-out basis) or market.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs represent fees and expenses related to the borrowing of the Company’s long-term debt and are amortized over the term of the related debt using the interest method. Total amortization expense related to deferred financing costs was $6.8 million, $2.6 million, and $1.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
At December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company’s net property, plant and equipment consisted of the following (in millions):
In December 2012, the Company purchased an approximate 800,000 square foot facility in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, for approximately $22.2 million. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company allocated $18.8 million and $3.4 million between buildings and land respectively, based on their relative fair values. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, these amounts have been reflected in property, plant and equipment on the Company’s accompanying consolidated balance sheet.
Depreciation of furniture, fixtures, and equipment (includes computer hardware and software) is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, which range from three to ten years. The Company capitalizes eligible costs to acquire or develop internal-use software that are incurred subsequent to the preliminary project stage. Computer hardware and software, the majority of which is comprised of capitalized internal-use software costs, was $158.8 million and $140.6 million as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively, net of accumulated depreciation. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the life of the related asset or the term of the lease, whichever is shorter. Buildings are depreciated over 40 years. Building improvements are generally depreciated over ten to fifteen years. Land is not depreciated. Depreciation and amortization expenses recorded to selling, general and administrative expenses totaled $81.5 million, $81.1 million, and $70.9 million, for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively.
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment, based on undiscounted cash flows, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Measurement of an impairment loss is based on the estimated fair value of the asset.
Goodwill and marketing related intangible assets with indefinite lives are evaluated on an annual basis for impairment or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. For goodwill, the Company uses a discounted cash flow approach to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value then the implied fair value of the goodwill must be determined. If the implied fair value of the goodwill is less than its carrying value then a goodwill impairment amount is recorded for the difference. For the marketing related intangible assets, the Company uses a discounted cash flow model under the relief-from-royalty method in order to determine the fair value. If the fair value is less than its carrying value then an impairment amount is recorded for the difference. During the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, there were no additions to goodwill or marketing related intangible assets or impairments of goodwill or marketing related intangible assets. At December 31, 2014 and 2013, the marketing related intangible asset balance was $310.0 million which consisted of the Company’s trademark, trade name, and marketing franchise. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, the goodwill balance was $102.2 million and $105.5 million, respectively. The decrease in goodwill during the year ended December 31, 2014 was due to cumulative translation adjustments.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their expected lives, and are expected to be fully amortized over the next two years. As of December 31, 2014, the Company’s intangible assets with finite lives decreased to $0.4 million. As of December 31, 2013, the Company’s intangible assets with finite lives decreased to $0.7 million. The annual amortization expense for finite life intangibles was $0.3 million, $0.4 million, and $0.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively. At December 31, 2014, the annual expected amortization expense is as follows: 2015 — $0.3 million and 2016 — $0.1 million.
Income tax expense includes income taxes payable for the current year and the change in deferred income tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or income tax returns. A valuation allowance is recognized to reduce the carrying value of deferred income tax assets if it is believed to be more likely than not that a component of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertainty in income taxes in accordance with FASB authoritative guidance which clarifies the accounting and reporting for uncertainties in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements. This guidance prescribes a comprehensive model for the financial statement recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in income tax returns. See Note 12, Income Taxes, for a further description on income taxes.
A Member may earn commissions, called royalty overrides which include production bonuses, based on retail sales volume. Royalty overrides are based on the retail sales volume of certain other Members who are sponsored directly or indirectly by the Member. Royalty overrides are recorded when the products are delivered and revenue is recognized. The royalty overrides are compensation to Members for services rendered including the development, retention and the improved productivity of their sales organizations. As such royalty overrides are classified as an operating expense. Non-U.S. royalty override checks that have aged, for a variety of reasons, beyond a certainty of being paid, are taken back into income. Management has estimated this period of certainty to be three years worldwide.
Comprehensive income consists of net income, foreign currency translation adjustments, the effective portion of the unrealized gains or losses on derivatives, and unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale investments.
Components of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) consisted of the following (in million):
The Company leases most of its physical properties under operating leases. Certain lease agreements generally include rent holidays and tenant improvement allowances. The Company recognizes rent holiday periods on a straight-line basis over the lease term beginning when the Company has the right to the leased space. The Company also records tenant improvement allowances and rent holidays as deferred rent liabilities and amortizes the deferred rent over the terms of the lease to rent expense.
Research and Development
The Company’s research and development is performed by in-house staff and outside consultants. For all periods presented, research and development costs were expensed as incurred and were not material.
Government grants are recorded into income when a legal right to the grant exists, there is reasonable assurance that the grant proceeds will be received and all the conditions under which the government grants were provided have been met and the Company has only perfunctory obligations outstanding.
The Company expenses professional fees, including legal fees, as incurred. These professional fees are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of income.
Advertising costs, including Company sponsorships, are expensed as incurred and amounted to approximately $69.7 million, $57.9 million, and $42.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively. These expenses are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share represents net income for the period common shares were outstanding, divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted earnings per share represents net income divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, inclusive of the effect of dilutive securities such as outstanding stock options, SARs and stock units.
The following are the common share amounts used to compute the basic and diluted earnings per share for each period (in millions):
There were an aggregate of 2.7 million, 3.0 million, and 4.0 million of equity grants, consisting of stock options, SARs, and stock units that were outstanding during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively, but were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because their effect would be anti-dilutive.
Since the Company will settle the principal amount of its Convertible Notes in cash and settle the conversion feature for the amount above the conversion price in common shares, or the conversion spread, the Company uses the treasury stock method for calculating any potential dilutive effect of the conversion spread on diluted earnings per share, if applicable. The conversion spread will have a dilutive impact on diluted earnings per share when the average market price of the Company’s common shares for a given period exceeds the initial conversion price of $86.28 per share. For the year ended December 31, 2014, the Convertible Notes have been excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share as the effect would be anti-dilutive since the conversion price of the Convertible Notes exceeded the average market price of the Company’s common shares for the year ended December 31, 2014. The initial conversion rate and conversion price is described further in Note 4, Long-Term Debt.
The Capped Call Transactions executed in connection with the issuance of the Convertible Notes are excluded from the calculation of diluted earnings per share because their impact is always anti-dilutive.
The Company generally recognizes revenue upon delivery and when both the title and risk and rewards pass to the Member or importer, or as products are sold in retail stores in China or through the Company’s independent service providers in China. Product sales are recognized net of product returns and discounts referred to as “distributor allowances.” Net sales include product sales and shipping and handling revenues. Shipping and handling costs paid by the Company are included in cost of sales. The Company generally receives the net sales price in cash or through credit card payments at the point of sale. The Company currently presents sales taxes collected from customers on a net basis. Allowances for product returns, primarily in connection with the Company’s buyback program, are provided at the time the sale is recorded. This accrual is based upon historical return rates for each country and the relevant return pattern, which reflects anticipated returns to be received over a period of up to 12 months following the original sale. Allowances for product returns were $4.3 million, $4.7 million, and $3.9 million as of December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively. Product returns were $7.3 million, $9.7 million, and $11.1 million during the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively.
The Company accounts for share-based compensation in accordance with FASB authoritative guidance which requires the measurement of share-based compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees. The Company measures share-based compensation cost at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award. The Company recognizes share-based compensation expense for service condition awards on a straight-line basis over the employee’s requisite service period. The Company recognizes share-based compensation expense for performance condition awards over the vesting term using the graded vesting method.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions. Such estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis using historical experience and other factors, including the current economic environment, which the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. The Company adjusts such estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances dictate. Illiquid credit markets, volatile equity, and foreign currency have combined to increase the uncertainty inherent in such estimates and assumptions. As future events and their effects cannot be determined with precision, actual results could differ from these estimates. Changes in estimates resulting from continuing changes in the economic environment will be reflected in the financial statements in future periods.
Currency Restrictions in Venezuela
Herbalife Venezuela, the Company’s Venezuelan subsidiary, currently imports its products into Venezuela. Foreign exchange controls in that country limit Herbalife Venezuela’s ability to repatriate earnings and settle its intercompany obligations at any official rate. As a result, the Company’s Bolivar-denominated cash and cash equivalents continued to accumulate, increasing the potential impact of any currency devaluation. The current operating environment in Venezuela also continues to be challenging for the Company’s Venezuela business, with high inflation, price controls, and the risk that the government will further devalue the Bolivar.
In June 2010, the Venezuelan government introduced additional regulations under a new regulated system, SITME, which was controlled by the Central Bank of Venezuela. SITME provided a mechanism to exchange Bolivars into U.S. dollars through the purchase and sale of U.S. dollar denominated bonds issued in Venezuela. However, SITME was only available in certain limited circumstances. Specifically, SITME could only be used for product purchases and was not available for other matters such as the payment of dividends. Also, SITME could only be used for amounts of up to $50,000 per day and $350,000 per month and was generally only available to the extent the applicant had not exchanged and received U.S. dollars via the CADIVI process within the previous 90 days. Effective January 1, 2012, additional laws were enacted that required companies to register with the Registry of Users of the System of Transactions with Securities in Foreign Currency, or RUSITME, prior to transacting with the SITME, the regulated system, which was controlled by the Central Bank of Venezuela.
In February 2013, the Venezuela government announced that it devalued its Bolivar currency and would eliminate the SITME regulated system. The SITME 5.3 Bolivars per U.S. dollar rate was eliminated and the CADIVI rate was devalued from 4.3 Bolivars to 6.3 Bolivars per U.S. dollar.
In March 2013, the Venezuelan government also announced the introduction of an additional exchange mechanism, or SICAD I. During the first quarter of 2014, the Venezuelan government announced the establishment of CENCOEX, which replaced the previous foreign exchange commission, CADIVI. Also, during the first quarter of 2014, the government announced that additional activities, such as the processing of dividend payments, which were previously administered by CADIVI, were now required to be processed at the SICAD I rate. During March 2014, the government introduced an additional exchange mechanism known as SICAD II.
As an alternative exchange mechanism, the Company has also participated in certain bond offerings from the Venezuelan government and from Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. or PDVSA, a Venezuelan state-owned petroleum company, where the Company effectively purchased bonds with its Bolivars and then sold the bonds for U.S. dollars. In other instances, the Company has also used other alternative legal exchange mechanisms for currency exchanges.
Highly Inflationary Economy and Accounting in Venezuela
Venezuela’s inflation rate as measured using the blended National Consumer Price Index and Consumer Price Index rate exceeded a three-year cumulative inflation rate of 100% as of December 31, 2009. Accordingly, effective January 1, 2010, Venezuela was considered a highly inflationary economy. Pursuant to the highly inflationary basis of accounting under U.S. GAAP, Herbalife Venezuela changed its functional currency from the Bolivar to the U.S. dollar. Subsequent movements in the Bolivar to U.S. dollar exchange rate will impact the Company’s consolidated earnings. Prior to January 1, 2010 when the Bolivar was the functional currency, movements in the Bolivar to U.S. dollar were recorded as a component of equity through other comprehensive income. Pursuant to highly inflationary accounting rules, the Company no longer translates Herbalife Venezuela’s financial statements as its functional currency is the U.S. dollar.
Remeasurement of Herbalife Venezuela’s Monetary Assets and Liabilities
Prior to February 2013, the Company used the SITME rate of 5.3 Bolivars per U.S. dollar to remeasure its Bolivar denominated transactions. During the year ended December 31, 2012, the Company accessed the SITME market in order to exchange its Bolivars to U.S. dollars, although daily and monthly restrictions existed. In other instances, the Company recognized an aggregate of $4.8 million of foreign exchange losses as a result of exchanging Bolivars for U.S. dollars using alternative legal exchange mechanisms that were approximately 43% less favorable than the 5.3 Bolivars per U.S. dollar published SITME rate. During the year ended December 31, 2012, the Company exchanged 59.2 million Bolivars for $6.4 million U.S. dollars using these alternative legal exchange mechanisms.
Following the Venezuelan government’s devaluation of the Bolivar against the U.S. dollar and elimination of the SITME regulated system in February 2013, the Company used the new CADIVI rate of 6.3 Bolivars per U.S. dollar to remeasure its Bolivar denominated transactions. This new CADIVI rate was approximately 16% less favorable than the previously published 5.3 SITME rate. The Company recognized approximately $15.1 million of net foreign exchange losses within its consolidated statement of income during the first quarter of 2013, as a result of remeasuring the Company’s Bolivar denominated monetary assets and liabilities at this new CADIVI rate of 6.3 Bolivars per U.S. dollar. The majority of these foreign exchange losses related to the approximately $16.9 million devaluation of Herbalife Venezuela’s Bolivar denominated cash and cash equivalents. During the year ended December 31, 2013, the Company also recognized $0.7 million of foreign exchange losses as a result of exchanging Bolivars for U.S. dollars using alternative legal exchange mechanisms that were approximately 75% less favorable than the new CADIVI rate. During the year ended December 31, 2013, the Company exchanged 5.6 million Bolivars for $0.2 million U.S. dollars using these alternative legal exchange mechanisms. During the fourth quarter of 2013, the Company received an approval through the SICAD I mechanism to exchange approximately 6.8 million Bolivars, or approximately $1.1 million U.S. dollars remeasured using the CADIVI rate, for a distribution of approximately $0.6 million in U.S. dollars, resulting in a foreign exchange loss of approximately $0.5 million, or an effective exchange rate of 11.3 Bolivars per U.S. dollar.
During March 2014, the Company submitted a SICAD II bid to exchange 5.3 million Bolivars for $0.1 million U.S. dollars which was approved and resulted in the Company recognizing a $0.7 million U.S. dollar foreign exchange loss at an effective exchange rate of approximately 56.2 Bolivars per U.S. dollar. As of March 31, 2014, there was limited information published around the SICAD II mechanism, and it was difficult to determine how the mechanism functioned and if the mechanism had any volume constraints.
Based on the events above and the Company’s facts and circumstances at that time, the Company remeasured its financial statements at the SICAD I rate of 10.7 Bolivars per U.S. dollar at March 31, 2014. As a result of using the less favorable SICAD I rate for remeasurement, during the three months ended March 31, 2014 the Company’s cash and cash equivalents were reduced by approximately $96.0 million, and the Company recognized $86.1 million of foreign exchange losses in selling, general & administrative expenses within its consolidated statement of income.
During the second and third quarters of 2014, the Company did not receive any approvals for U.S. dollars using the SICAD I and SICAD II mechanisms. The Company recognized $0.2 million and $17.1 million in foreign exchange losses relating to unfavorable changes in the SICAD I rate during the three months ended June 30, 2014 and the three months ended September 30, 2014, respectively.
In October 2014, the Company exchanged Bolivars for a small amount of U.S. dollars at the SICAD II rate, and the Company continued applying for U.S. dollars using the SICAD II mechanism on a regular basis through December 31, 2014. Conversely, the Company’s ability to convert its Bolivars to U.S. dollars at the SICAD I rate has not improved in recent periods nor is the Company confident that it will improve in future periods. Furthermore, Herbalife Venezuela formally initiated local manufacturing efforts, including the execution of a local manufacturing agreement in October 2014. Over time, if the Company is successful in implementing its local contract manufacturing strategy, it expects to reduce its U.S. dollar-denominated product importations and increase its Bolivar-denominated purchases from local Venezuela manufacturers. This expected decrease in future U.S. dollar importations will further reduce the Company’s future potential eligibility to access the SICAD I mechanism. Accordingly, at September 30, 2014, the Company remeasured its financial statements at the SICAD II rate of 50.0 Bolivars per U.S. dollar and recognized $98.0 million in additional foreign exchange losses. As a result of using the less favorable SICAD II rate, the Company’s cash and cash equivalents on its consolidated balance sheet were reduced by approximately $102.5 million and the Company recognized $7.6 million of inventory write downs in cost of sales and $7.0 million of long lived asset impairments in selling, general & administrative expenses within its consolidated statement of income during the third quarter of 2014. The Company remeasured its financial statements using the SICAD II rate of 50.0 Bolivars per U.S. dollar as of December 31, 2014.
Due to the evolving foreign exchange control environment in Venezuela, it is possible that the Company’s ability to access certain foreign exchange mechanisms, including the SICAD I and SICAD II exchange mechanisms, could change in future periods which may have an impact on the rate the Company uses to remeasure Herbalife Venezuela’s Bolivar-denominated assets and liabilities. If the Company uses the SICAD II rate for remeasurement purposes in future periods, any future U.S. dollars obtained through the more favorable SICAD I mechanism could have a positive impact on the Company’s consolidated net earnings. In addition, devaluations of the SICAD II rate, adoption of less favorable official rates by the Venezuelan government, or U.S. dollars obtained through less favorable alternative legal exchange mechanisms, could have a negative impact on the Company’s future consolidated net earnings. To demonstrate, if the Company had used a less favorable rate of approximately 180 to 200 Bolivars per U.S. dollar to remeasure its Bolivar-denominated cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2014, Herbalife Venezuela’s cash and cash equivalents would have been further reduced by approximately $26.3 million to $27.3 million at December 31, 2014. The Company is closely monitoring the SICAD I and SICAD II exchange mechanisms as they continue to evolve. See Note 15, Subsequent Events, for discussion of subsequent events related to Venezuela.
As of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, Herbalife Venezuela’s net monetary assets and liabilities denominated in Bolivars was approximately $35.1 million and $186.9 million, respectively, and included approximately $36.4 million and $215.9 million, respectively, in Bolivar denominated cash and cash equivalents. As noted above, these Bolivar denominated assets and liabilities were remeasured at the SICAD II rate as of December 31, 2014 and at the CADIVI rate as of December 31, 2013. These remeasured amounts, including cash and cash equivalents, being reported on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet using the published SICAD II rate may not accurately represent the amount of U.S. dollars that the Company will ultimately realize. While the Company continues to monitor the exchange mechanisms and restrictions imposed by the Venezuelan government, and assess and monitor the current economic and political environment in Venezuela, there is no assurance that the Company will be able to exchange Bolivars into U.S. dollars on a timely basis.
Investments in Bolivar-Denominated Bonds
During the fourth quarter of 2013, the Company invested in Bolivar denominated bonds, or bonds, issued by the Venezuelan government. The purchase price of the bonds was approximately 25.5 million Bolivars, or approximately $4.1 million using the CADIVI rate. During the year ended December 31, 2014, the Company invested in additional Bolivar denominated bonds with a purchase price of 144.6 million Bolivars, or approximately $12.6 million using the applicable Bolivar to U.S. dollar exchange rates when the bonds were purchased. The Company classifies these bonds as long-term available-for-sale investments which are carried at fair value, inclusive of unrealized gains and losses, and net of discount accretion and premium amortization. The fair value of these bonds are determined using Level 2 inputs which include prices of similar assets traded in active markets in Venezuela and observable yield curves. Net unrealized gains and losses on these bonds are included in other comprehensive income (loss) and are net of applicable income taxes. During the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, the Company did not sell any of its bonds.
The Company’s investments in these bonds as of December 31, 2014 are summarized as follows:
The Company evaluates securities for other-than-temporary impairment on a quarterly basis. The impairment evaluation considers numerous factors, and their relative significance varies depending on the situation. Factors considered include the length of time and extent to which the market value has been less than cost; the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer of the securities; when applicable, the foreign exchange rates that are available to the Company; and the intent and ability of the Company to retain the security in order to allow for an anticipated recovery in fair value. If, based upon the analysis, it is determined that the impairment is other-than-temporary, the security is written-down to fair value, and a loss is recognized in other expense, net in the Company’s consolidated income statement. Other-than-temporary impairments relating to available-for-sale securities for the year ended December 31, 2014 was $13.0 million, which was primarily due to unfavorable foreign exchange rates. There were no other-than-temporary impairments relating to available-for-sale securities for the year ended December 31, 2013.
The amortized cost and estimated fair value of these bonds as of December 31, 2014 by contractual maturity are as follows:
Expected disposal dates may be less than the contractual dates as indicated in the table above.
Consolidation of Herbalife Venezuela
The Company continues to operate in Venezuela and the increasing foreign currency constraints continue to create significant challenges for Herbalife Venezuela. In addition to the contract manufacturing strategy described above, other strategies the Company has implemented to limit its financial exposure from currency restrictions and devaluations in its Venezuela operation while it continues to support its Members and their consumers include operating hour limitations, order size limitations, limiting Member promotions and events to local Bolivar-denominated expenses, and limiting the importation of products into Venezuela. Herbalife Venezuela will continue to apply for legal exchange mechanisms to convert its Bolivars to U.S. dollars. Despite the currency exchange restrictions in Venezuela, the Company continues to control Herbalife Venezuela and its operations. Therefore, the Company continues to consolidate Herbalife Venezuela in its consolidated financial statements.
Herbalife Venezuela’s net sales represented approximately 3%, 6%, and 4% of the Company’s consolidated net sales for the years ended December 31, 2014, 2013, and 2012, respectively, and its total assets represented approximately 2% and 10% of the Company’s consolidated total assets as of December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively.